# INTRODUCTION

Einstein: a Jewish, German, theoretical physicist of the 20th century. He has proved to be one of the most influential figures in science up to this day, teaching us physics that should have been proven half a century ago. Even with the technology today, the breakthrough that Albert Einstein made is what led to the quadrupling of our knowledge in both classical and quantum physics.

# DISCOVERIES

GENERAL RELATIVITY

General relativity explains the galactic measurement of space-time and its equivalence to gravity and how acceleration and gravity are proportionately the same. What also makes it great was that he was able to build upon Newton’s explanation of gravity. He provided the world of physics with a different explanation, which was that space was more of a fabric and that mass had much more of an effect than thought before. Unlike, Newton’s concept, which primarily relies on forces between two objects rather than forces on a system itself. Space-time was also able to corroborate with the theory of the big bang since it backed up the inflation of the universe.

SPECIAL RELATIVITY

Special relativity explains the same concept but on earth, and it aggregates how space and time expand and how energy is relative to mass by E=mc^2(energy of matter and antimatter is equal to the product of the speed of light squared and mass in Amu or kg, etc). This equation led to many creations like the atomic bomb and the nuclear energy that we use today, and hopefully many to come.

PHOTON AND BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE

Einstein’s discovery of photons in his well-renowned experiment proved the concept of wave-particle duality and assisted in later advancements in condensation from the quantum level of bosons, which are essentially forces without mass. An example of this is the different number of frequencies and level vibrations within subatomic particles. The deeper we dive into subatomic particles, the more unpredictable they become; and with unpredictability comes probability(a mathematical level of usage is real analysis and statistics and quantum theory). Both are part of the new quantum concepts you see today. Without this expansion to subatomic particles by Einstien, things like bosons and muons would have never been found.

TIME DILATION

Time dilation explains that there are two clocks to two perspectives, therefore, using Pythagoras theorem: A^2=B^2+C^2, it is concluded that time curves over a distance which gives us a new theorem called spacetime.

INDIRECTLY PROPOSED BLACKHOLE

Einstein’s miscalculations of galactic masses were now discovered to be caused by the existence of black holes which miscalculated Einstein’s theory of gravity. 4O Years later, Stephen Hawking formed up the solution to the entropy and temperature of a black hole using Einstein’s tensor equations.

PERSONAL LIFE

Born in Zurich, Einstein’s parents left him at the University of Hamburg. Even though he failed his first attempt at the entrance exam, he persuaded his eventual physics professor to study for free while studying for the entrance exam. After nearly a semester he got back to retest and passed to the wire. After graduating he couldn’t find a job as a physicist except in a patent office. An alternative solution was research in relativity continuing Galileo Galili’s laws. Eventually, he pursued his career alongside his colleague and friend Michel Besso.

# GRAPHICAL DATA

Even light bends and changes direction in a space-time field when gravity is active.

# CONCLUSION

Despite these great discoveries, we still cannot explain gravity at the quantum level and why Einstein’s conclusion of gravity might be the most accurate yet unobservable in quantum size. The breakthrough in general relativity brought up a complex yet more appealing explanation of gravity. His work in physics will be used for centuries to come.

Writer: Ali Fathi Albati

Editors: Omar Alturki/ Lama Alahdal